Subscribe to our feed Archives

Archive for 2017

Friday, March 03, 2017

From Scribe to Screen: How Technology is Changing Textual Criticism

By: Jacob W. Peterson, PhD Candidate at the University of Edinburgh 

I had just turned eight when the first edition of The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research was published in 1995, but my first interaction with the book didn’t come until more than a decade and a half later in grad school. One of the final chapters of that book dealt with the use of computers in textual criticism and the promise that the digital revolution had for the field. Reading that chapter in late 2011 caused more gratefulness that I skipped that era than hope for some Jetsons-like future. To say that technology had changed in the interim between publication and my reading would be a severe understatement. When the second edition landed on the shelves in late 2012, the editors made the decision not to update that chapter because as soon as the volume was printed it would be outdated. With an eye to the fact that the pace of technological innovation has still not slowed, I will now offer some current and future tech that brings promise to the study of ancient documents, particularly of the New Testament.

The first technological advance showing great promise is multi-spectral imaging (MSI). Specialists working with MSI are just beginning to understand the range of its applications. I was recently at a presentation by representatives of the Early Manuscripts Electronic Library (EMEL) who were working on items in the David Livingstone collection. They had used MSI to create a topographical analysis of a diary page that revealed a wet cup had once rested on the page. This was all but invisible to the naked eye but perfectly explained why certain parts of the text had smudges. While this is now only marginally exciting, it points to a bright future for the technology. There are so many important manuscripts that are difficult to read or are illegible for any number of reasons that MSI enables us to finally analyze. Beyond providing scholars with accurate pictures of the text contained in the ancient sources, MSI seems to have great potential for informing us about secondary details, too. Text critics should be excited that more and more libraries are utilizing MSI because it finally provides clear access to our most inaccessible texts.

The next piece of technology holds, I think, the most potential to change the way that text criticism is done. Only a few years ago the idea of a successful application of optical character recognition (OCR) to handwritten texts was labeled impossible. By “OCR” I mean having a computer scan an image of a text and convert that into a digital text than can be searched and edited in a computer program. I’ve now seen prototypes that not only demonstrate that Greek manuscript OCR is possible, but that it is realizable in the not-too-distant future. The traditional way of analyzing manuscripts involves a human comparing a manuscript to a known text and recording the differences or actually transcribing each letter. You can imagine the feasibility of doing this for 5800 manuscripts, which is why text critics have created methods for sampling a manuscript’s readings rather than looking through the entire text. When provided with high quality digital images like those from CSNTM, OCR promises to automate this laborious process. Lifetimes’ worth of work will be compressed into mere months. OCR is not a magic wand that will eliminate the need to confirm readings in the manuscripts, but it will provide unprecedented amounts of raw data. That data can then be fed into tools like the Coherence-Based Genealogical Method to provide an even better picture of textual transmission, which ultimately impacts our understanding of the earliest form of the New Testament text. OCR, when achieved, will drastically transform what text critics have available to them and will open new avenues of research that will shed more light on the transmission of the New Testament.

A final and probably overlooked element of the increased incorporation of technology into textual criticism that I want to mention is its social impact. In the 19th century, text critics were predominantly Western European and, if not independently wealthy, funded by a benefactor. By the 20th century, the practice expanded to America but remained a discipline of Western culture. In the 21st century, organizations like CSNTM and its European counterparts, along with individual libraries, have opened up many resources to the rest of the world. For instance, students and scholars in South America, where the only known manuscript is in Brazil, now have free online access to thousands of manuscripts that previously were inaccessible because of distance and financial resources. In this way, technology has allowed textual criticism to soon become a global enterprise. New perspectives and new voices will make welcomed contributions to the field.

These are but a few examples of the ways I see technology changing textual criticism. The forecast may change tomorrow so that what I’ve written today becomes obsolete, but what will not change is the ever-increasing role of technology in the discipline. The good news is that these new developments, whatever they may be, move us in the direction of a better and more complete understanding of the history of the New Testament text.

Wednesday, March 01, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

GA Lect 1805, John 1

Headpiece from the beginning of Johannine lections in GA Lect 1805

  • GA 1830: 15th century minuscule of the Apostolos and Paul.
  • GA 1831: 14th century minuscule of the Apostolos and Paul.
  • GA 2013: 12th century minuscule of Paul with commentary. This manuscript is a consistently cited witness in the NA27. The text is marked off from the commentary by carats. Somes leaves are missing, and the quires were accidentally reshuffled during the modern rebinding process.
  • GA Lect 1233: 13th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 1651: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 1804: 14th century lectionary (dated to 1356) of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 1805: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels. In the image above, you can see an example of the ornate headpieces found throughout the manuscript. There is also a rather creative ekthesis letter here. The middle of the epsilon is an arm offering an apple to a bird, which forms the top curve of the letter. 

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

From the Library: GA 2934

The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) Digital Library contains hundreds of Greek NT manuscripts, each with its own story to tell. In our “From the Library” series, we will feature individual manuscripts from our collection in order to showcase their unique beauty and importance. This is part of CSNTM’s mission to make NT manuscripts accessible for everyone.

 

An Unusual Discovery

Our next feature is an unusual manuscript that CSNTM discovered inside the binding of another manuscript at the National Library of Greece (NLG). One of the Greek New Testament manuscripts in the National Library’s collection is a 12th century lectionary, known to scholars as GA Lect 1813. When CSNTM’s Executive Director, Dr. Daniel B. Wallace, was examining it for digitization he discovered that leaves from a different manuscript had been glued to the inside cover of the manuscript. Once he took a closer look he discovered that they contained portions from 1 John and Acts.

GA 2934

Side-by-side images of the front and back covers of GA 2934

 

Although a finding like this is somewhat unusual, it is certainly not unprecedented. Those who rebound medieval manuscripts sometimes used other manuscripts, perhaps those that were damaged or for some reason no longer in use, to help preserve and fortify the manuscript at hand. Such a finding may not necessarily revolutionize our knowledge of the New Testament text, but it adds further hard evidence to the sheer number of manuscripts that have existed in history. Our embarrassment of riches just got a little bit richer.

After the manuscript was digitized, experts at the Institute for New Testament Textual Research (INTF) examined the images and determined that it was a bona fide New Testament manuscript, which was previously unknown. Now, these leaves have been officially catalogued and added to the list of Greek New Testament manuscripts as Gregory-Aland 2934. This is one of four manuscripts CSNTM digitized at the NLG that have been recently catalogued. To learn about all four, you can go here.

Thursday, February 16, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

GA 778 Cover

The Front Cover of GA 778

  • GA 778: 12th century minuscule of the Gospels. The first quire has been accidentally reshuffled with the leaves appearing out of order. The icon of Matthew is a smaller leaf, probably from another manuscript.
  • GA 1695: 14th century minuscule dated to 1311 of the Gospels. Two front cover parchment leaves are GA Lect 2013.
  • GA 1763: 15th century minuscule of the Apostolos and Paul.
  • GA Lect 1650: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 1800: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 1801: 13th century lectionary dated to 1265 of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 1803: 14th century lectionary of the Gospels.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Thursday, February 09, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

John Icon

Icon from the beginning of John's Gospel in GA 1686

  • GA 1272: 15th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA 1686: 15th century minuscule (dated to 1418) of the Gospels. The pericope adulterae has been marked as dubious by the original scribe, though it is still included in the text.
  • GA 1690: 13th-14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 836: 14th century lectionary (dated to 1340) of the Gospels. This lectionary contains only Sunday lections.
  • GA Lect 1062: 15th century lectionary with selected New Testament readings from the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 1280: 15th century lectionary (dated to 1474) of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 1549: 14th century lectionary of the Gospels. This lectionary contains Sunday lections with accompanying commentary.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Thursday, February 02, 2017

CSNTM's International Advisory Board

The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) is excited to announce the creation of an International Advisory Board of experts in New Testament manuscript studies, library sciences, and digital preservation from leading international institutions. This board will facilitate the Center’s digitization efforts around the world. Greek New Testament manuscripts are in more than 250 sites worldwide and this global team will help to see them digitized and made available for all to study.

The members of the International Advisory Board are:                                                                                                                     

  • Athanasios Antonopoulos - Faculty of Social Theology, School of Theology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Emanuel Contac - Faculty Member, Pentecostal Theological Institute, Bucharest
  • Simon Crisp - Coordinator for Scholarly Editions and Translation Standards, United Bible Societies
  • Fionnula Croke - Director, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin
  • J. Keith Elliott - Emeritus Professor of New Testament Textual Criticism, University of Leeds
  • Brendan Haug - Assistant Professor of Classical Studies and Archivist of the Papyrology Collection, University of Michigan
  • Larry Hurtado - Emeritus Professor of New Testament Language, Literature and Theology, School of Divinity (New College), University of Edinburgh
  • Christos Karakolis - Associate Professor at Faculty of Theology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • David C. Parker - Edward Cadbury Professor of Theology and Director of the Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing, University of Birmingham
  • Ekaterini Tsalompuni - Assistant Professor of the New Testament at the School of Social and Pastoral Theology at the Faculty of Theology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
  • Peter Williams - Warden, Tyndale House, Cambridge; Affiliated Lecturer, University of Cambridge
  • Stavros Zouboulakis - President of the Board of Directors, National Library of Greece and Chairman, Artos Zois

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

Matthew Icon

  • GA 787: 12th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA 795: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA 802: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 421: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 443: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 1516: 15th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 1517: 16th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 8 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

GA 780 John Headpiece

Icons in the headpiece for John's Gospel in GA 780

  • GA 780: 11th century minuscule of the Gospels. This manuscript has particularly interesting and unique headpieces to begin each Gospel, which appear to have been added later. They each have three small icons of various figures ranging from the Gospel authors themselves to Jesus Christ, Peter, Paul, and even John Chrysostom. The feature image above from the beginning of the Gospel of John has (from left to right) John the Evangelist, Jesus Christ, and John the Baptist. This codex also contains a leaf from an uncatalogued manuscript with the text of Phil 2.7–11.
  • GA 782: 12th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA 783: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 410: 13th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 413: 14th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 414: 14th century lectionary of the Gospels. This manuscript is a palimpsest. The upper-text is GA Lect 414, but the under-text is from various majuscule and minuscule manuscripts.
  • GA Lect 419: 16th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • NLG 1910: 15th century lectionary. This manuscript was identified by CSNTM and it has not yet been officially catalogued or assigned a Gregory-Aland number.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 Gospels manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

Open Lectionary on Copystand

  • GA 769: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA 775: 13th century minuscule of the Gospels. This codex is a miniature, pocket version of the Gospels.
  • GA 1698: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels. The quires and bifolia were reshuffled completely out of order when the manuscript was rebound! Our informational document can offer a guide through the text.
  • GA Lect 393: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 394: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 407: 13th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 408: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

Icon Headpieces

Headpiece icons in GA 772

  • GA 254: 14th century minuscule of the Apostolos, Paul, and Revelation with commentary by Theophylact. The biblical text is rubricated (i.e., in red ink) whereas the accompanying commentary is written in black ink.
  • GA 763: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels. The codex actually contains the beginning of Matthew twice! Leaves 14-16 are from another manuscript and contain Matthew 1.1-2.7, and then GA 763 begins with Matthew 1.1 at leaf 17 and continues the rest of the Gospel.
  • GA 772: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels with commentary by Theophylact. Biblical text is indicated by double arrows in the margins. The Gospels of Mark, Luke, and John each have a beautiful headpiece containing an icon of the Evangelist (a collage of all three headpieces is pictured above).
  • GA Lect 386: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 392: 12th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 409: 11th century lectionary of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 435: 14th century lectionary of the Gospels.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.

Friday, January 06, 2017

New Manuscripts from the National Library of Greece

New manuscripts digitized by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have just been added to our searchable collection. These include 7 manuscripts from the National Library of Greece (NLG) in Athens, the site of our recently completed digitization project.

MS Room Icon

  • GA 1761: 14th century minuscule of the Apostolos and Paul. Based on the quire count, it seems that at least 23 quires (184 leaves) are missing from the front of this manuscript. Thus, it appears highly likely that the manuscript originally contained the four Gospels as well.
  • GA 2523: 15th century minuscule of the Gospels, Apostolos, and Paul.
  • GA 2526: 14th century minuscule of the Gospels.
  • GA Lect 427: 13th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos. The text begins with a rather interesting headpiece featuring Jesus in the center with Mary on his left, John the Baptist on his right, and two angels below them.
  • GA Lect 591: 11th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.
  • GA Lect 594: 15th century lectionary of the Apostolos and Paul.
  • GA Lect 1307: 15th century lectionary of the Gospels and Apostolos.

These images have now become part of our growing searchable library, which gives everyone free access to the best available digital images of New Testament manuscripts.